18 Quick and Easy Tips for a Positive Attitude

Life is not always fair and things do not always go your way.

It is important to keep a positive attitude to be able to move through the difficult times.

Below are a bunch of tips and tricks that you can use to keep a Positive Attitude.

1. Keep focused on today and let the past and future take care of themselves.

2. Be aware of your body posture. You can influence how you feel by how you stand and sit. Standing or sitting hunched over constricts your breathing and adds to feelings of despair.

3. Keeping a positive attitude is added by reading high quality books and magazines on uplifting subjects. Not only does this help but by focusing on these subjects your mind is also taken away from worrying about your troubles. And of course it is nice to get motivated.

4. Even though we are sometimes clobbered with negativity we are the ones in control of our attitude. Keep working on an uplifting and positive focus.

5. Work at looking at the newness of things. Many times we take daily life for granted. As the expression goes – stop and smell the roses.

6. Don’t forget to exercise. Besides getting into shape and making your doctor happy, exercise is a great mood elevator. In many cases much better then medication. Also exercise helps get rid of many small aches and pains. The better our bodies feel the better our outlook is.

7. Sometimes it helped to look outward. See how other people are doing. Take time to devote to others. There are many advantages to this. One advantage is that it takes your mind of your own issues. ALso the more you can be of help the more people will send you good thoughts and wishes. And there is a lot to be said for positivity coming your way.

8. Always be aware that it is your attitude that makes you feel how you feel.

9. Keep positive thoughts in your mind. You can use affirmations from popular book or biblical passages. By keeping these thoughts in mind you can help yourself through those low energy periods of time.

10. If we feel oppressed by the wants and need of others then we can see no way out. Work at being the decider of your fate.

11. Don’t sweat the small stuff.

12. Have a plan. If you are able to plan you day, week and month this will give you a direction. As you see your list being completed you will have a sense of accomplishment. This feeling will go a long way in developing a positive attitude.

13. Stop living in the past. If you live in “what might have been” you will find it hard to be happy.

14. A positive attitude is a state of mind. You have to decide you controls your mind. Is it you or is it the circumstances of your environment. The more times you can replace negative thoughts with positive ones the easier it will become.

15. Smile at people. The more times you can have a smile on your face the more positive you will be. And the happier the people around you will be.

16. Take time to sing. Even if you have a bad voice. You will feel better for it.

17. Be happy when you face challenges. The more times you can overcome them the stronger you will be. And the better your attitude will be.

18. Take time to dream of all the things you want to happen. This is a great way to recharge your batteries.

Colleges For Studying Interior Designing

Nowadays, creative professions have become very popular. Young people prefer to earn money not with their strength and physical capabilities, not even with their mind, but creativeness. These days, young people are very advanced and already before entering senior secondary school they are full with ideas concerning their future profession. Starting to work in the fields connected with creative skills and new tendencies in society is the major goal of today’s youth.

It is a true point of view that uniqueness and creativity are the most important tools of success today. Each person possesses his or her own creative potential, thus, one wishes to develop these skills and talent by mastering some new profession or a course. The latter will not only suggest a person the space for thinking and creativeness, but also invention something new and unusual which has never been done by previous generations. Besides, such creative people are able to build a fundamental starting-point for future generations. Here the freshness of a new approach is of great importance.

It is widely known that there are many new fields and tendencies nowadays. Most of such professions are highly creative demanding a sober and unique imagination, for instance, cinema acting, theatre acting, writing, dancing, painting, crafts, radio jockeying, anchoring, fashion designing, interior designing etc. There is no doubt, that all of these professions are greatly popular among young people, but interior designing can be singled out due to its uniqueness. This uniqueness consists in the fact that it gives an opportunity to future designers to transform the whole universe of their ideas and thinking power into the object of creative beauty. Only the noblest people deserve to have the profession of an interior designer. It’s in their power to decorate one’s house that is considered to be one of the most precious properties in a person’s life. It’s the place a number of people have already got used to and it’s designer’s task to make it much better than it was before.

In order to become a good interior designer one has to be able to fulfill the professional demands of the industry. Thus, students should train their working standards in special colleges which have started courses in interior designing. To enter such a college one has to pass an entrance test which is conducted by the colleges to test imaginative analytical skills, technical drawing, sketching skills of the students.

The applications to the interior designing colleges can be made by the student only after he has passed with his 12th exams. The duration of the course can vary from two to four years, it depends on the chosen course and the institute from which the student is planning to receive his education. There are different colleges providing professional courses in interior designing and you are welcome to make your own choice. They are:

> Lovely Professional University, Phagwara

> Academy of Art and Design, Maharashtra

> International Academy of Fashion and Design, Chennai

Architects may design different surroundings, for instance, those designing the houses, offices, hotels, malls, retail shops, film studios, cultural establishments (museums, theatres, cinemas), educational institutions (kindergartens, schools, colleges, institutes, universities), sports establishments (stadiums, sports palaces), nutritional establishments (canteens, cafes, restaurants), medical establishments (hospitals, health centres, preventoriums, polyclinics), public offices, adventure spots, conference halls etc. No doubt, all of designers are always in demand to decorate their interiors as well as exteriors.

After completing his degree in interior designing a student should start his studying as the intern or trainee in some designing house. It is especially necessary to do in the beginning of their career in order to get an experience needed in future activity. This will certainly give a student such an important initial practical knowledge required to implement in further career. There are certain qualities which an interior designing student must possess. Here you will probably ask – What are the Qualities that Make a Good Interior Designer? They are as follows:

– Every future interior decorator should be able to read the mind of the customer and accomplish the designs according to the wishes of the customer. Very often a person is not quite sure what he or she wants to have in his or her house. In this case a good designer should have a skill to feel the client’s likes and dislikes in order to meet his interests.

– A nice Interior designer should keep himself updated with the latest tendencies in the design and new developments as well as innovation in the world of designing in general. In order to get new information about progress in the world of design, a designer should visit new design houses, communicate with more experienced interior designers, look through design websites etc.

– A perfect interior decorator must be very creative and imaginative, it means he must be able to implement some new ideas for every new project. There are many interior designers who follow the standard rules of design in which there are good enough because they have often practiced them. No doubt, that such designers are not bad at all, but on the other hand, they are not able to suggest the client something fresh and unique. Thus, their works become more and more monotonous and the development of a designer, as a professional, stops on this stage. Besides, they cannot bring excitement in the world of design. So, an interior designer must be creative not only for the sake of his clients, but also in order to refresh the interior design in general.

– The next point also concerns the interests of the customer. A designer should be able to organize the design in accordance with the budget and financial status of the customer. Each new client requires his individual approach and his wishes do not always coincide with his material opportunities. In this case a good designer should be rather tactic to suggest his client something identical but for lower price.

– A good interior designer should possess a good sense of texture and color combinations, as well as work on improving his knowledge of different classifications of interiors. Besides, he should be able to define what kind of design could be suitable for this or that room.

– It would be preferable for the designs created by the interior designer to be more than the term satisfactory for the customer. It is needed for further cooperation not only with that customer, but also with those who will probably come to you after seeing your great design made in the house of your previous customer, for instance. Besides, this will ensure your regularity with the organization you work in.

– A designer should have an ability to handle stress and problems which can appear during his activity. Having a problem one shouldn’t simply shudder at the thought of possible bigger problems, but real interior designers take the problems by the horn, get things under control, and even if a problem occurs, they try to solve it. Problems of interior designers may include the following: developing a design that their clients will hopefully like, meeting the interests of both clients and building code, having to deal with difficult and inadequate clients most of the time, handling different projects all at the same time, etc.

As you can see, the profession of an interior designer is full of difficulties. Nevertheless, this is the job bringing real aesthetical pleasure. Besides, it brings great financial reward.

Five Benefits of Good Corporate Image

“Bad publicity is still publicity.” Such statement is one of the most common yet dangerous cliches ever. Isn’t it better to be remembered because of good deeds rather than controversial scandals? The greatest heroes and leaders of histories are immortalized because of their significant contributions. On the other hands, those that have been a scourge to humanity are eternally condemned.

This principle also applies to companies or business organizations. More than anything else, corporate image or reputation is one thing that should be taken good care of. A tainted reputation can cripple even the most well-known establishments. Redeeming one’s image is far by more costly than losing a good deal. Once your reputation is ruined, your business is in high risks of crumbling into pieces. There are several reasons that justify the importance of corporate image or reputation.

A good corporate image or reputation is an efficient marketing and promotional tool – Consumers will always remember an outstanding service. Likewise, they never forgive and forget mediocre works as well. Clients spend their hard-earned money on products and services that they avail. If your company is known for good performances, you have a higher tendency of attracting more customers. The best part of it is that you don’t have to spend a considerable amount of time convincing them. Your previous clients will be your unofficial spokespersons. You don’t have to spend too much on employing the services of advertising agencies. In addition to that, it is a given fact that consumers prefer to patronize service providers which have already established their names in their respective industries.

Credibility and integrity comes with a good name – Don’t forget that your reputation is your identity . It articulates the culture of your organization. It is hard to be credible when nobody believes in you. Relatively, it is also difficult to prove integrity when your clients talk negatively about your company’s services. Instead of recommending and promoting your business, you soon find your customers spreading warnings and bad reviews.

Corporate image or reputation establishes trust, confidence, loyalty and superb client relationships – The most respectable names in the industry did not reach the zenith of success if they did not protect their reputation. It should be noted that achieving untainted corporate image is not just about avoiding scandals and controversies. It is more of meeting the expectations of their clients. In order to build a good image, excellence and perfection must be continuously observed. As for the client’s part, a good image provides a strong sense of security. They are assured that they would get good results once they use the services or products launched and offered by a reputable company.

Company image is instrumental in increasing your business opportunities – Corporate reputation is like a magnet. It does not only attract customers. It also catches the attention of interested investors and business partners. Who would dare to invest in a company known for management conflicts and workforce issues? Establishing a good image generates tons of possibilities for business growth and expansion.

A good image can stand the test of time – In this highly competitive market, consumers will always look for alternatives. However, a well-established reputation lessens the worries of switching to other service providers. Clients would continue to patronize your products even if it is more expensive. It is because they are aware that the company can efficiently deliver their needs and demands.

It has been always said that “first impressions last.” Make a memorable impression. Value your company’s reputation and its name will continue to resonate for the rest of time.

5 Differences Between Mopeds and Scooters

If you are trying to save a few buck in your transportation expenses these days, you may want to consider a moped or scooter. Obviously if you don’t live near your work or have a large family this may not be possible. But for single people, students, or someone who has just a short commute to work, these vehicles can save you a ton of money when it comes to what you are paying at the pump each month.

Many people interchange the two terms, but they technically are not the same. Here are some of the differences between the two:

#1 The Look.

Some of you reading this that are a little bit younger may have never even seen a moped. They look like a heavier duty version of a bike. They have a motor, but they also have pedals.

The scooter on the other hand, has no pedals and looks like more like a mini motorcycle.

#2 The Motor

Mopeds are going to tend to be a lot less powerful than most scooters. They will usually have a 1 gallon gas tank with no more than a 49cc motor. Don’t get me wrong, they will usually get you over 200 miles on a tank, but they are limited on power.

The scooter, on the other hand, has evolved over the years. Scooters come with many different engine sizes ranging from 49cc up to 250cc.

#3 Speed

The mopeds are hindered by their smaller motor, so they only get going to around 30 mph tops. The scooter can go anywhere from 25mph up to 60mph depending on the size of the motor.

#4 Availability

Honestly, there are going to be many more options available to you if you are choosing a scooter over a moped.

#5 Affordability

A moped might be a little less expensive because a) the are usually not as high tech; or b) you may actually have to find a used one if the moped is the way you want to go.

Scooters are much more advanced nowadays, but some people like the old school look and feel f the moped. Either way, they are both going to save you massive amounts of money at the pump if you decide to use them.

Designing the Interior of a Retail Store

Retail has long been powerful and one thing we know is that there are a lot of different approaches to designing the interior layout of a store. However, there are some common design strategies that all retailers can use, which lead to generating more sales for a business. The interior design of your retail store is an issue we have been seeing recently, in an effort to help traders become more successful boutiques and thrive in today’s digital age. Since tell the story of a brand and create immersive experiences to utilities for the development of showcases and announcements signaling when it comes to retail the important thing is in the details. We want you to have the basic knowledge.

It is a known fact that in America, 90% of consumers when entering a shop turn right unconsciously. The first wall you see is often referred to as a “wall power” and acts as a first vehicle high impact provides a potential to the good in this space, so make sure you give extra special attention in terms of what you choose show. Be sure to arouse the attention of your customer with products that you put on the screen, either new or seasonal elements, high yield or high demand for products, to tell stories of your product and create vignettes.

The threshold area, also known as the “decompression zone” is the first space where potential customers walk when they walk into your store and usually consists of the first five to fifteen feet of space, depending on how great your business. This is also the space where your customers are going to make the transition from the outside world to the first experience you have to offer. They also make critical judgments, like how cheap or expensive is your store, how well coordinated is the site, lighting, accessories, lampshades and colors. Since they are in a transition mode, customers are more likely to miss any product, signaling, or cart to put there.

This can vary greatly depending on the size and overall design of your store, but knowing that your customers want to turn right, your next job is to make sure customers continue walking through your shop to get the maximum exposure of your products. This not only increases the chances of making a purchase, but a well thought out way can be a great way to strategically control the flow of traffic in your store.

Most stores use a circular path starting on the right to reach the back of the store and return to the front. Some will make it even easier, covering the road with different textures, in homage to the old saying “where the eyes go, your feet will follow.” Another thing to consider is that you should use the route to direct your customers to somewhere, which often means putting a flashy ad or screen to draw attention at the end of a corridor, for example.

With all the effort and time you put into your merchandising strategy and the proper arrangement of your products, the last thing you want your customers to come in a hurry and do not observe in detail your store or limit the products they can buy. One way to combat this is through “speeders.” In essence, this can be anything that offers customers a visual break and can be achieved through special signage or seasonal.

Most retailers properly implemented using what is known as “positions of goods” which are devices special display products near the end or in the middle of store aisles that encourage make impulse purchases while complement the products on display. However, since it is likely that your store does not have many halls, it is important to think of the group of products in a way that makes them easy to see and go together from the perspective of a buyer. Also remember to keep products “higher demand” at eye level. Finally, it is recommended to change these products weekly or regularly enough to create a continuous sense for repeat visitors.

You can also make your store is comfortable by incorporating some sort of waiting area with comfortable seats and benches that encourage customers to spend more time in your store, especially if a buyer is accompanied by someone who is not interested in making a purchase or children. A small tip to consider is to keep the seats or benches in front of the merchandise.

The design of your store is an endless process, where you can always be changing place things, to create a journey of experiences. At the end of the day, however, that’s exactly what you should focus, where you can constantly test and optimize your products. Make your acquaintances and family members give you feedback. Finally, keep in mind your customers and see what attracts them, what to avoid and how to move, then determines if they match your intended design. Keep your eyes and ears open, so you’re sure to create an environment of retail that is a win-win for both for you and your customers.

RGB to CMYK – What's the Problem?

Lots of graphics programs provide the opportunity to work in an RGB (Red, Green, Blue) or CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) color space. To understand each set of colors we need to understand how they are used and why they are used.

RGB Color Spaces
When working with RGB you are literally working with light. Recalling from school when you shine white light through a prism you get different color spectrums. The most basic colors are Red, Green and Blue. The colors are measured my intensity on a scale of 0-255 for all three colors (255 or or 16 million colors). If you have no color (R = 0, G = 0, B = 0) you get black, if you have 100% of all three colors (R = 255, G = 255, B = 255) you get white.

CMYK Color Spaces
When working with CMYK you are working with pigment and that is why it's used for printing. Pretty much all color printers (inkjets, laser printers, dye-sub printers, and even full color offset and web presses) use CMYK. Some printers come with more than one shade of Cyan and / Magenta in order to achieve more color combinations but they are all basically CMYK printers. All CMYK colors are based on the paper being printed on being white. CMYK is measured in percentages from 0% to 100% for all 4 colors. If you have no color (C = 0%, M = 0%, Y = 0%, K = 0%) You are left with white (the blank paper.) To make black you can either use 100% Black and 0% of all the other colors (know as standard black) or you can use a combination of all the colors to give you a darker black known as Rich Black. The most common ratio of colors to get rich back was popularized by Adobe Photoshop which uses this ink mixture when converting RGB black to CMYK (C = 63%, M = 52%, Y = 51%, K = 100%).

When to use RGB or CMYK
Knowing when to use RGB and when to use CMYK can save you lots of time and headache and the rule is very simple. If your purpose is to display images and colors on a computer monitor (slide shows, web pages, movies, power point presentations, emailing flyers, scanning pictures) use RGB. If you are going to be printing images and colors they need to be in CMYK (although printers can convert the images for you to you may incur additional charges or unexpected results since there are many colors in RGB that can not be replicated in CMYK.

What's the problem?
The main challenge with the two color spaces is in the printing. RGB colors that are bright and vibrant are typically much duller when printed in CMYK (after all since RGB is light itself you are never going to get a brighter image on paper.) The toughest colors to reproduce for CMYK is blue and red. On the screen RGB blue looks bright and very blue, on paper however you end up with navy blue instead. If you ever printed out a webpage with blue links on it you know exactly what I'm talking about.

Is there a solution to the RGB to CMYK problem?
Yes. The solution to the problem is to always work in CMYK when printing. If you are using print design software (Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, PageMaker, Quark, FreeHand, etc.) then you can select CMYK before you get started and you will not have to worry about a thing. If you are using a program that was not designed for printing (MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, etc.) then you will never have the option of changing to CMYK because the software was not designed for printing. It pays to have the right software.

6 Reasons to Use Online Design Tool for Designing Your Postcards

Whether you're a businessman with an established business, a start up entrepreneur or a professional, you need postcard design that is an exact match of your industry. When graphic design is the last of your competency though, you can simply choose from a variety of templates from online printers.

Printing companies offer an extensive gallery of design templates to make it easier for their customers to come up with beautifully designed prints. And because of competition, they invest heavily on the quality and extensiveness of their galleries.

1. Your postcard may be small, but they will be subject to close scrutiny. The templates are made of high resolution images so you can expect crisp and clear images when you have these images printed. The minimum resolution for your postcard should contain at least 300 dpi.

2. In addition, with the templates are outfitted with guide lines such as the trim marks and the bleed. The trim line is where you expect your cards to be cut, while the bleed is the permission provided for cutting. The sheets of printed paper are stacked when cutting so there is a minimal sliding when your postcards are cut to size.

3. The templates are designed to meet a comprehensive list of categories for businesses. With all the designs available, you will certainly find one that fits you perfectly. If you want to customize your prints further, you can even upload your own image and logo and incorporate it to the generic design.

4. You also have a choice of fonts and fields you want included in your cards. Online design programs allow you to format your text. You may change the font styles, font colors, and font sizes. You may also delete unnecessary fields or add new text. The elements can also be moved around, just remember to stay within the safe zone.

5. You can use the program to format the back side of your postcard as well. Like the front side, the template on the back can be formatted as well. The back side though has additional guidelines that inform you where the postal marks will be located. You can use the back side to include your advertising copy and the mailing information.

6. When you are unsatisfied with the template you chose, you can simply reset everything and choose a new template. This will bring you back to the templates gallery to choose the design you want. You can do this as much as you want until you find the perfect postcard design.

The best part about working on an online design program is the ease with which you can have your cards printed. When you finalize your card, you can wait for a digital proof which will show you what the cards are supposed to look like. This is your final chance to make last minute corrections.

You can then proceed to check out. Choose the specifications you want your postcard design printed on, and the volume of prints you need. You will then be asked to pay for the total cost. When you've completed the online transaction, your cards will be ready for printing.

4Ps & 6Ps – Marketing Mix

Marketing mix is one of the major concepts of marketing. According to the traditional base, there are 4Ps of marketing. These are referred to as the marketing mix. But in the modern use of the term, many more Ps have been coined. People have found six, seven even eleven Ps of marketing. In this article we will talk about the 4Ps and 6Ps.

Four Ps

The four Ps of marketing mix consist of Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Product means the thing that you are selling. It can also be a service like the tourism industry.

Price means the rate at which the product is being sold. A number of factors are involved in determining the price of a product. These include competition, market share, product identity, material costs and the value customers perceive of a product. In fact prices are also determined by competitor’s products. If the competitors have the same product, then the price of a product will go down.

Place refers to the real or virtual place from where a product can be bought by a consumer. Another name used for place is called “distribution channel”. Promotion is the way that a product will be communicated to the general public. There are four distinct ways in which this might be done- ‘point of sale’, ‘word of mouth’, public relations and advertising.

Somewhere down the line people felt that four Ps were not enough for marketing mix. It had to face a lot of criticism mainly on the grounds that it was extremely product focused. This was not enough for the economy which is based a lot on services as well nowadays.

Another criticism that marketing mix has to face is that it does not have a ‘purpose’. So it should be looked upon as a tool that sets marketing strategy. Another criticism of marketing mix is that it does not discuss customers. This is why the concept of Six Ps of Marketing mix has achieved relevance.

Six Ps

The six Ps contain all the four Ps of marketing – product, price, place and promotion. In addition, it contains, two new Ps, namely People and Performance.

People include the potential and current customers of the business and how they make their purchase decisions. Market segmentation is also a part of this. It contains the features of market segmentation and the most attractive segments of this market.

The next P is Performance. This implies the performance of the business. The financial and strategic objectives of the business are dealt with here. It is also seen whether these objectives are achievable and realistic or not. The metrics of financial performance are also seen and appropriated in this division.

The six Ps of marketing mix help to overcome the criticisms of the four Ps. Hence the 6Ps serve to be a better alternative as compared to the 4Ps of marketing mix.

Commercial Agents – Things I Like About Prospecting Letters

In commercial real estate today, you need lots of opportunities to generate meetings and potential listings with new people and property owners. You need a system to the contact process so the opportunities are self-perpetuating and they can help you grow your market share over time. On that basis I love using prospecting letters as a basis of activity for the new business pipeline.

Prospecting letters are now reaching a new level of effectiveness given that most agents will typically use e-mail contact with prospects and property owners. Here are some critical facts to help you establish your prospecting letters process:

  1. The creation and dispatch of a prospecting letter to a specific property owner will usually be read. The letter should be personalised and no more than three paragraphs in length. The letter should be designed to introduce your telephone call that you will be making to that person within the next few days.
  2. You can send success letters to property owners and business proprietors in the general area of your recent completed and closed transaction. The success letter will also be a reason for personal contact and telephone calls.
  3. If you send a prospecting letter or a success letter, always enclose your business card. Refrain from enclosing any other printed material as this will generally be seen as a marketing strategy and not a personal approach. Your letter that needs to be seen as a simple personal approach with the business card. Your letter is introducing your subsequent telephone call with the chosen person.
  4. You should only send out approximately five letters per day. On that basis you will be making five telephone calls in approximately four or five working days. The system is self perpetuating and will build your database significantly over time. Do not send out any more than 5 letters per day, because the follow-up process will always need to be done on a daily basis and that is a personal process.
  5. Keep an eye out for other agents boards being placed on properties in your local area. These signboards are of a trigger for you to direct mail the property owners and the business proprietors in the immediate vicinity of that competitors listed property. You can use the other agents listing as a trigger for personal approach to these other people.

If you are struggling with your market share and need more new business opportunity, the prospecting and lead a process is highly effective over time. You should be sending letters to the same people every 90 days and making the necessary follow-up calls as appropriate. This regular cycle of contact will help you build your market share.

The Availability of Guns Is the Issue, Not Mentally Ill Shooters

School shootings are a distinctly American phenomenon. Unfortunately, the public focus is either on the mental state of shooters or on the availability of guns.

In fact, mass shootings by people with serious mental illness represent less than 1% of all annually gun-related homicides in the United States. (1) The overall contribution of people with serious mental illness to violent crimes is only about 3%. When these crimes are examined in detail, an even smaller percentage are found to involve firearms. Criminals and angry teenagers and adults use guns.

Still, there is reason to be concerned about the mental health of our young citizens. Most are doing well, but at least one in three are not. At least one in four have experienced neglect and / or abuse at some point in their lives and are predisposed to violence in later life.

The United States ranks 18th of 21 Western countries in overall child wellbeing. American children are clearly falling short intellectually. They rank 23rd in science, 17th in reading and 31st in math achievement out of 32 Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development countries. (2) These include Shanghai, China (1st in all), Finland (1st, 2nd and 6th), South Korea (6th, 2nd and 4th), Canada (8th, 6th and 10th), Germany (13th, 20th and 16th) and Poland (19th, 15th and 25th).

The Centers for Disease Control's 2016 Youth Risk Behavior Survey found that nationwide 6% of students missed at least 1 day of school during the past month because they felt unsafe in school.

Overall child deaths in the United States greatly exceed those in comparable nations, largely because of thevalence of gun deaths. Of each 1 million children in the United States, 6,500 die of all causes annually in the United States compared to 3,600 in Germany and 2,500 in Japan.

In Chicago, more than 440 school-age children were shot in 2012; sixty died. "I think people in Chicago have almost gotten numb to the statistics," said Dexter Voisin, a researcher at the University of Chicago. "For every kid who is killed, about 100 kids witness a murder or are victims of nonfatal injuries, robberies, muggings and gang-related incidents."

Mental health professionals are all too familiar with the use of guns in suicides and homicides, but focusing on the mental state of shooters misses the point. Criminals and angry persons use guns. No one would shoot anyone if handguns and automatic weapons were not readily available. The latter are military weapons that have no place in civil hands.

No mental health interventions will ever prevent the vast majority of shootings in our homes, on our streets and in our schools. Strict gun control laws that reduce the availability of guns will. At the same time, the mental health of our young citizens does cry out for attention. We child and adolescent psychiatrists have an obligation to make both of these facts known.

1. Knoll, James L. & Annas, George D. (2016) Mass Shootings and Mental Illness. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.
2. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/results.htm
3. https://www.newswithviews.com/Wooldridge/prosty467.htm